From the Virginia Society of Certified Public Accountants - Presented by Dean Knepper, CPA, CFP®


(August 2010) -- Do you know what’s in your credit file? The update in the Fair Credit Reporting Act that took effect in 2004 and 2005 allows all Americans the right to receive free copies of their credit files annually from credit reporting agencies. In the wake of that change, the credit reporting agencies and related companies have stepped up their efforts to market a wide range of credit-related products to consumers: credit scores, credit watch services, credit protection plans and more.

If you want to manage your credit effectively, the Virginia Society of CPAs (VSCPA) suggests you go right to the source and review the data that all the credit reporting agencies use. Then you will have the opportunity to correct inaccuracies and review corrections — all at no charge.

The rise of the credit score

A typical credit report provides users with several pages of detailed information about an individual’s financial past. It lists bank accounts, credit cards, revolving credit accounts, loans and other financial transactions. The report has details about current payments, past history of payments on current accounts, and similar information about accounts that have been closed. In short, there is a lot of detailed information and numbers.

FICO, formerly known as Fair Isaac, is a company founded in 1956. Its first major product was the FICO score — a numerical summary of all the data in a person’s credit file that would give a credit manager a quick, easy way to determine if the potential customer was creditworthy. Today FICO has numerous competitors in the credit score business including the major credit agencies. Each offers its own tweaks to the service, but the underlying principle remains the same: analyze the data in a credit file to give a quick, easy-to-understand summary.

Get to the source

If you want to understand and possibly improve your credit worthiness, start by taking advantage of your right to review your credit file. For direct, commercial-free access to credit reports online, go to You will have to provide the site with your Social Security Number. is the only source authorized by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) for access to free credit reports. Other websites may require you to provide a credit card number and will try to sell you products such as credit scores and protection plans.

Another quick and efficient way to get your free credit report is to order it by telephone. Each system will initially direct you to its website, but eventually, you will have the opportunity to order a free “credit file disclosure” that will be delivered by mail. You will need your Social Security Number, date of birth and address to obtain the report. The three major sources from which to request your report are:

Experian: Call (888) 397-3742. Provide your area code and choose option 1 when the phone system starts directing your call. You will get a confirmation number at the end of the call.

Equifax: Call (800) 685-1111. This system takes the longest time to get to the ordering process. It will provide a confirmation number.

TransUnion: Call (800) 888-4213. This system makes a long sales pitch after taking your information to encourage you to sign up for credit protection. You will not receive a confirmation number from the system.

Correcting information in your credit file

Under the terms of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, credit agencies are responsible for correcting inaccurate or incomplete information in your credit file. To make corrections to your file, send a “dispute letter” to the credit agency. Include copies (not originals) of the information in question and any backup documentation that you have to support your position. The credit agency is required by the law to respond to your letter within 30 days. For more information about correcting errors visit the FTC website at Search for “Building a Better Credit Report” for an excellent overview and detailed “how-to” information.

Instant credit score

If you’re simply curious about how your credit file looks and want a quick overview — a credit score — you can visit This website, launched in February 2008, uses data from Experian to provide a FICO-like credit score. The website offers credit protection and a variety of other paid services. Creating an account is free, and it will not require you to provide a Social Security Number. According to information from the site, the company is part of the Intuit corporate family. The site has received favorable reviews by reputable sources such as the Wall Street Journal, and web searches do not reveal any complaints of abuse or fraud.

Consult your CPA

Professional financial advisors strongly encourage individuals to review their credit reports annually. It’s an opportunity to be proactive and address issues rather than waiting and reacting to a bad credit score. As you review your financial situation and chart your future plans, remember that your local CPA can help. Your CPA can offer the advice and information you need to make smart financial decisions.


The Virginia Society of CPAs is the leading professional association dedicated to enhancing the success of all CPAs and their profession by communicating information and vision, promoting professionalism, and advocating members’ interests. Founded in 1909, the Society has nearly 8,000 members who work in public accounting, industry, government and education. This Money Management column and other financial news articles can be found in the Press Room on the VSCPA Web site at


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